By the 19th century, acupuncture had become commonplace in many areas of the world.
Americans and Britons began showing interest in acupuncture in the early 19th century but interest waned by mid century. 27 Western ppractitioners abandoned acupuncture's traditional beliefs in spiritual energy, pulse diagnosis, and the cycles of the moon, sun or the body's rhythm. In 2007, the National Health Interview Survey NHS conducted by the National enter For Health Statistics NHS estimated that approximately 150,000 children had received acupuncture treatment for a variety of conditions. auscultation and olfaction, inquiring, and palpation. The.hen Jiu Jim Fi Jung, which was published in the mid-3rd century, became the oldest acupuncture book that is still in existence in the modern era. Århus afdelingen
Other books like the Cu Kuei Chen Chang, written by the Director of Medical Services for China, were also influential during this period, but were not preserved. 29 In the mid 7th century, : 10.1093/rheumatology/ken161 . Even.f.hey.Gould.agree, the ACM theories are so nebulous that no amount of scientific study will enable ACM to offer rational care.” 5 Some modern practitioners support the use of acupuncture to treat pain, but have abandoned the use of qi, meridians, yin, yang and other energies based in mysticism, as explanatory frameworks. 8 25 26 The use of qi as an explanatory framework has been decreasing in China, even as it becomes more prominent during discussions of acupuncture in the US.
Academic discussions of acupuncture still make reference to pseudo-scientific concepts such as qi and meridians despite the lack of scientific evidence. Many within the scientific community consider attempts to rationalize acupuncture in science to be quackery, pseudo-science and “theatrical placebo”. her er Odense klinik
Academics Massimo Pigliucci and marten Boudry describe it as a “borderlands science” lying between science and pseudo-science. Many acupuncturists attribute pain relief to the release of endorphins when needles penetrate, but no longer support the idea that acupuncture can affect a disease. It is a generally held belief within the acupuncture community that acupuncture points and meridians structures are special conduits for electrical signals but no research has established any consistent anatomical structure or function for either acupuncture points or meridians. Human tests to determine whether electrical continuity was significantly different near meridians than other places in the body have been inconclusive. Some studies suggest acupuncture causes a series of events within the central nervous system, 260 and that it is possible to inhibit acupuncture's analgesic effects with the opioid antagonist naloxone . Mechanical deformation of the skin by acupuncture needles appears to result in the release of adenosine .
The anti-nociceptive effect of acupuncture may be mediated by the adenosine A1 receptor. A 2014 Nature Reviews Cancer review article found that since the key mouse studies that suggested acupuncture relieves 1462-0324 . Plinio Prioreschi, the earliest known historical record of acupuncture is the Shih-Chi “Record of History”, written by a historian around 100 BC. It is believed that this text was documenting what was established practice at flicking, or moving up and down relative to the skin. Some.f the sites acupuncturists use needles at today still have the same names as this given to them by the Yellow empower's Classic. Numerous additional documents were published over the centuries introducing new acupoints. 29 :101 By the 4th century AD, most of the acupuncture sites in use today had been named and identified.
In the first half of the 1st century AD, acupuncturists began promoting the belief that acupuncture's effectiveness was influenced by the time of day or night, the lunar cycle, and the season. The Science of the Yin-Yang Cycles yen chi Hsüeh was a set of beliefs 29 :71 However, it is more likely that stones were used for other medical purposes, such as puncturing a growth to drain its pus . 27 30 The Mawangdui texts, which are believed to be from the 2nd century BC, mention the use of pointed stones to open abscesses, and moxibustion, but not for acupuncture. 28 It is also speculated that these stones may have been used for blood-letting, due to the ancient Chinese belief that illnesses were caused by demons within the body that could be killed or released. 269 It is likely blood-letting was an antecedent to acupuncture. 30 According to historians Lu Gwei-djen and Joseph Needham, there is substantial evidence that acupuncture may have begun around 600 BC. 29 Some hieroglyphs and pictographs from that era suggests acupuncture and moxibustion were practice. 270 However, historians Gwei-djen and Needham said it was unlikely a needle could be made out of the macerials available in China during this time period. 29 :71-72 It is possible Bronze was used for early acupuncture needles. Traditionally, acupuncture was used to treat acute conditions around assumed reflex zones of the hand. amid. 18460551 . Inspection.focuses on the face and particularly on the tongue, including analysis of the tongue size, shape, tension, colon and coating, and the absence or presence of teeth marks around the edge. 45 Auscultation and olfaction involves listening for particular sounds such as wheezing, and observing body door. 45 Inquiring involves focusing on the “seven inquiries”: chills and fever; perspiration; appetite, thirst and taste; defecation and urination; pain; sleep; and lenses and leukorrhea . 45 Palpation is focusing on feeling the body for tender “A-shi” points and feeling the pulse. 45 Traditional and modern Japanese guiding tube needles The most common mechanism of stimulation of acupuncture points employs penetration or in places not associated with meridians.
The under-performance of acupuncture in such trials may indicate that therapeutic effects are due entirely to non-specific effects, or that the sham treatments are not inert, or that systematic protocols yield less than optimal treatment. 75 76 A 2014 Nature Reviews Cancer review article found that “contrary to the claimed mechanism of redirecting the flow of qi through meridians, researchers usually find that it generally does not matter where the needles are inserted, how often that is, no dose-response effect is observed, or even if needles are actually inserted. “Demystifying operation; these demonstration cases were also frequently receiving morphine surreptitiously through an intravenous drip that observers were told contained only fluids and nutrients. 281 One patient receiving open heart surgery while awake was ultimately found to have received a combination of three powerful sedatives as well as large injections of a local aesthetic into the wound. 57 After the National Institute of Health expressed support for acupuncture for a limited number of conditions, adoption in the US grew further.
In 1972 the first legal acupuncture canter in the US was established in Washington DC 282 and in 1973 the American Internal Revenue Service allowed acupuncture to be deducted as a medical expense. 283 In 2006, a BBC documentary Alternative Medicine filmed a patient undergoing open heart surgery allegedly under acupuncture-induced anaesthesia. G. Acupressure, a non-invasive form of bodywork, uses physical pressure applied to acupressure points by the hand or elbow, or with various devices. 53 Acupuncture is often accompanied by moxibustion, the burning of cone-shaped preparations of moxa made from dried mugwort on or near the skin, often but not always near or on an acupuncture point. It.as.ater.revealed that the patient had been given a cocktail of aesthetics. 284 285 Acupuncture is popular in China, 235 the US, 16 Australia, 286 and Europe 287 including all five Nordic countries, though less so in Finland. 288 It is most heavily practice in China 235 and is one of the most common alternative medicine practices in Europe. 287 :45 In Switzerland, acupuncture has become the most frequently used alternative medicine since 2004. 289 In the United Kingdom, a total of 4 million acupuncture treatments were administered in 2009. 290 Acupuncture is used in most pain clinics and hospices in the UK. 41 An estimated 1 in 10 adults in Australia used acupuncture in 2004. 286 In Japan, it is estimated that 25 percent of the population will try acupuncture at some point, 32 though in most cases it is not covered by public health insurance .
Users of acupuncture in Japan are more likely to be elderly and to have a limited education. 32 Approximately half of users surveyed indicated a likelihood to seek such remedies in the future, while 37% did not. 32 Less than one percent of the US population reported having used acupuncture in the early 1990s. 291 By the early 2010s, more than 14 million Americans reported having used acupuncture as part of their health care. 291 In the US, acupuncture is increasingly as of 2014 updates used at academic medical canters, 77 and is usually offered through CAM canters or anaesthesia and pain management services. 292 Examples include those at Harvard University, Stanford University, Johns Hopkins University, and UCL . 94 A 2012 review found that acupuncture seems to be cost-effective for some pain conditions.
Risk of forgoing conventional medical care As with other alternative medicines, unethical or naive practitioners may induce patients to exhaust financial resources by pursuing ineffective treatment. 5 243 Profession ethical codes set by accrediting organizations such as the National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine require practitioners to make “timely referrals to other health care professionals as may be appropriate.” 244 Stephen Barrett states that there is a “risk that an acupuncturist whose approach to diagnosis is not based on scientific concepts will fail to diagnose a dangerous condition”. 245 Main articles: Qi, Traditional Chinese medicine, Meridian Chinese medicine, and Acupuncture point Old Chinese medical chart of acupuncture meridians Acupuncture is a substantial part of traditional Chinese medicine ACM.
Early acupuncture beliefs relied on concepts that are common in ACM, such as a life force energy called qi. 246 Qi was believed to flow from the body's primary organs zang-fu organs to the “superficial” body tissues of the skin, muscles, tendons, bones, and joints, citation needed through channels called meridians. 247 Acupuncture points where needles are inserted are mainly but not always found at locations along the meridians. 248 Acupuncture points not found along a meridian are called extraordinary points and those with no designated site are called “A-shi” points. 248 In ACM, disease is generally perceived as a disharmony or imbalance in energies such as yin, yang, qi, xuĕ, zàng-fǔ, meridians, and of the interaction between the body and the environment. 249 Therapy is based on which “pattern of disharmony” can be identified.
For example, some diseases are believed to be caused by meridians being invaded with an excess of wind, cold, and damp. In order to determine which pattern is at hand, practitioners examine things like the colon and shape of the tongue, the relative strength of pulse-points, the smell of the breath, the quality of breathing, or the sound of the voice. ACM and its concept of disease does not strongly differentiate between the cause and effect of symptoms. 255 Scientific research has not supported the existence of qi, meridians, or yin and yang.
A Nature editorial described ACM as “fraught with pseudo-science”, with the majority of its treatments having no logical mechanism of action . 256 Quackwatch states that “ACM theory and practice are not based upon the body of knowledge related to health, disease, and health care that has been widely accepted by the scientific community. Over time, the focus shifted from blood to the concept of puncturing specific points on acupuncture practices as well. 27 China and Korea sent “medical missionaries” that spread traditional Chinese medicine to Japan, starting around 219 AD. ACM.ractitioners disagree among themselves about how to diagnose that it can cure disease; the evidence of effectiveness is negligible. 63 Scalp acupuncture, developed in Japan, is based on reflexological considerations regarding the scalp . Korean acupuncture uses copper needles and has a greater focus on the hand. 38 The Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare after passing an examination and graduating from a technical school or university. 303 Australia regulates Chinese medical traditions through the Chinese Medicine Board of Australia and the Public Health Skin Penetration Regulation of 2000. Infection is caused by a lack of sterilization, but at that time it was believed to be caused by use of the wrong needle, or Needles. 48 Japanese acupuncturists use extremely thin needles that are used superficially, sometimes without penetrating the skin, and surrounded by a guide tube a 17th-century invention adopted in China and the West.
inspecFion.focuses.n.he face and particularly on the tongue, including analysis of the tongue size, shape, tension, colon and coating, and the absence or presence of teeth marks around the edge. 45 Auscultation and olfaction involves listening for particular sounds such as wheezing, and observing body door. 45 Inquiring involves focusing on the “seven inquiries”: chills and fever; perspiration; appetite, thirst and taste; defecation and urination; pain; sleep; and lenses and leukorrhea .
Palpation is focusing on feeling the body for tender “A-shi” points and feeling the pulse. 45 Traditional and modern Japanese guiding tube needles The most common mechanism of stimulation of acupuncture points employs penetration that curing diseases relied on the alignment of both heavenly then and earthly ti forces that were attuned to cycles like that of the sun and moon. 29 :140-141 There were several belief systems that relied on a number of celestial and earthly bodies or elements that rotated and only became aligned at certain times. 29 :140-141 According to Needham and Gwei-djen, these “arbitrary predictions” were depicted by acupuncturists in complex charts and through a set of special terminology. 29 Acupuncture needles during this period were much thicker than most modern ones and often resulted in infection. It.includes a licensing exam and registration, as well as degree courses approved by the board. 300 Canada has acupuncture licensing programs in the provinces of British Columbia, Ontario, Alberta and Quebec; standards set by the Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture while moxibustion was used for chronic diseases .
In 2008 a study determined that the use of acupuncture-needle treatment on children was “questionable” due to though it is more likely to have been brought into Korea from a Chinese colonial prefecture in 514 AD. Acupuncture use was commonplace in Korea by the 6th century. G. Additionally, by the 18th century, scientific rationality was becoming more popular than traditional superstitious beliefs. By 1757 a book documenting the history of Chinese medicine called acupuncture a “lost art”. 29 :160 Its decline was attributed in part to the popularity of prescriptions and medications, as well as its association with the lower classes. 275 In 1822, the Chinese Emperor signed a decree excluding the practice of acupuncture from the Imperial Medical Institute. He said it was unfit for practice by gentlemen-scholars. In China acupuncture was increasingly associated with lower-class, illiterate practitioners. It was restored for a time, but banned again in 1929 in favour of science-based Western medicine.